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Three Citadels of San Marino (Tre Rocche)

Rocca Guaita San Marino
The first citadel Guaita is frequently appearing in the picture postcard. Best photos can be taken from the second citadel Cesta!

Rocca Cesta San Marino
From Guaita to Cesta, a steep staircase road is following. Please be careful at the feet.

Rocca Guaita San Marino
From Cesta to the 3rd citadel, Montale, you can enjoy peaceful walking.

Rocca Montale San Marino
There are many people who see only the 1st and the 2nd Citadels and turn back. However, coming here, please look also the last one Montale. It's a peaceful citadel, I love it.

Must see! Three Citadels

The Republic of San Marino has many tourist attractions and we recommend the three citadels. The first one is Guaita, the second is Cesta and the third is named Montale. These three towers are used for the design of the Republic of San Marino's flag. They were important fortresses which had defended San Marino from invasion from other countries. The existence of these citadels built in the Middle Ages is very impressive.

The first citadel Guaita (Rocca Guaita / Prima Torre)

Guaita was built in the 11th century, and it's the oldest among the three citadels. Many repairs and expansions had been done. The battle which valued this citadel highly was the fight between the Malatesta family (current Rimini). This battle became the final one in the history of the Republic of San Marino. Then, across the centuries up to 1975, this citadel had been used as a prison.

The second citadel Cesta (Rocca Cesta / Seconda Torre)

Cesta is located in 7 minutes walk from Guaita, at the highest point of the Mount Titano (760 m). It was built in the 13th century. Panoramic views from here are great! The central part is shaped pentagon as well as the other two citadels. Now it's used as a Museum of medieval weapons.

The third citadel Montale (Rocca Montale / Terza Torre)

After visiting Guaita and Cesta, keeping walking through green trails, you will arrive to Montale (approximately 7 minutes on foot from Cesta). This citadel was built in the 14th century on the ridge of Mount Titano. It was used mainly to observe distant enemies. Around the citadel, many rocks were stocked against attacks from enemies, but now they have been gone away. This citadel was also used as a prison. The entrance is set at the 7 m high from the ground. It's a common structure in this period.

from ITALY
Advice from a writer who lives in Italy

Please note in autumn and winter it's easy to have a foggy day! Everything disappears completely in white. From the first Guaita to the second Cesta, there is a shortcut but it's a little bit dangerous. On a foggy day, it's better to turn back once and take a wide way.

Name The first citadel Guaita(Rocca Guaita = Prima Torre)
Address Salita alla Rocca, 47890 San Marino, Italy
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